CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 3(11) / 2014

SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL REVIEWED JOURNAL
the Research Institute of Human Morphology

CLINICAL MORPHOLOGY

A.V. Pavlov
Architectonics of mastoid bodies in human brain in alcohol disease
4

Details

ARCHITECTONICS OF MASTOID BODIES IN HUMAN BRAIN IN ALCOHOL DISEASE

A.V. Pavlov

Histological examination of the brain in men of the first period of mature age with alcoholic encephalopathy showed marked involutive changes in cytoarchitectonics and angioarchitectonics of mastoid bodies. The number of glial elements increased by 30%, the number of microvessels was reduced by 47.4%, the neurons, by 44%. The number of nerve cells with inclusions of lipofuscin in the cytoplasm was higher by 86% in the specimens of the subjects in this group compared with the age-matched and sex-matched group of patients without evidence of alcoholic brain damage. Severe swelling of the neuronal cytoplasm was revealed. Area of nerve cells in the examined group was more by 34.4%.

Key words: human brain, hypothalamus, mastoid bodies, alcoholic disease

M.V. Mnikhovich, I.V. Vasin, S.V. Snegur, T.E. Vorozhbieva, N.S. Korchagina
Morphology of extragenital endometriosis revisited
8

Details

MORPHOLOGY OF EXTRAGENITAL ENDOMETRIOSIS REVISITED

M.V. Mnikhovich, I.V. Vasin, S.V. Snegur, T.E. Vorozhbieva, N.S. Korchagina

The article provides a theoretical description as well as clinical and morphological analysis of a rare disease, postoperative scar endometriosis.

Key words: endometriosis, histogenesis of endometriosis, endometriosis postoperative scar, extragenital endometriosis

EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY

V.V. Novochadov, P.A. Krylov
Heterogeneity of hyaline cartilage matrix density of rabbit knee iont
15

Details

HETEROGENEITY OF HYALINE CARTILAGE MATRIX DENSITY OF RABBIT KNEE IONT

V.V. Novochadov, P.A. Krylov

We have examined the tissues of knee joint of six intact Chinchilla rabbits in order to study the structural manifestations of cluster organization (mosaicity) of hyaline cartilage in terms of light microscopy. As a result, we have registered the phenomenon of repetitive mosaic patterns differing from the surrounding cartilage by denser extracellular matrix and higher numerical density of chondrocytes. The revealed sites (microclusters) occupied from 30% to 45% of cartilage volume, had a shape similar to a polygon truncated pyramids and sized about 80 to 180 microns. The above phenomenon may partly explain the distribution of static and dynamic loadings on the articular surface.

Key words: articular cartilage, extracellular matrix, morphology, rabbit

A.O. Bondarchuk, L.V. Fomina, A.A. Gavrilyuk
Recovery dynamics of the mucosal epithelium in small intestine of rats after exposure to cyclophosphamide and correction with benzofurocain and methyluracil
20

Details

RECOVERY DYNAMICS OF THE MUCOSAL EPITHELIUM IN SMALL INTESTINE OF RATS AFTER EXPOSURE TO CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE AND CORRECTION WITH BENZOFUROCAIN AND METHYLURACIL

A.O. Bondarchuk, L.V. Fomina, A.A. Gavrilyuk

We studied the activity of the recovery of small intestinal mucosa based on mitotic and apoptotic index. Benzofurocain and methyluracil are proven to stimulate the recovery of small intestinal mucosa damaged by cyclophosphamide wherein the normalization proceeded faster under the impact of benzofurocain.

Key words: activity of recovery, mitotic index, apoptotic index, small intestine, cyclophosphamide, benzofurocain, methyluracil

M.E. Diatroptov, E.Yu. Simonova, O.V. Makarova
Patterns of manifestation of 4-day mitotic rhythm in the esophageal epithelium in Wistar rats kept under constant light or light deprivation
27

Details

PATTERNS OF MANIFESTATION OF 4-DAY MITOTIC RHYTHM IN THE ESOPHAGEAL EPITHELIUM IN WISTAR RATS KEPT UNDER CONSTANT LIGHT OR LIGHT DEPRIVATION

M.E. Diatroptov, E.Yu. Simonova, O.V. Makarova

We studied infradian mitotic rhythms in the esophageal epithelium in Wistar rats kept under constant light or light deprivation. It was found that the 4-day infradian mitotic rhythms in the epithelium in Wistar rats that were born and kept under light deprivatoin are consistent with those in animals kept under natural light. Maintaining rats under constant bright light from birth reduces the average value of mitotic index in the esophageal epithelium and the amplitude of 4-day infradian rhythm for this parameter. Adult male Wistar rats kept under constant dim light with impaired rhythms of locomotor activity on days 1, 2, and 3 and the rats under natural light matched by the phase and period of the 4 day infradian mitotic rhythms as evidenced by the dynamics of the mitotic index. This, the results indicate the infradian rhythms are, to a certain extent, independent of the circadian rhythms.

Key words: infradian biological rhythms, mitotic index, epithelium, llumination conditions, male Wistar rats

E.А. Dmitrieva
Morphology of regenerated bone tissue under effect of EasyGraft and amorphous calcium phosphate implants
36

Details

MORPHOLOGY OF REGENERATED BONE TISSUE UNDER EFFECT OF EASYGRAFT AND AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IMPLANTS

E.А. Dmitrieva

We studied the effects of EasyGraft and amorphous calcium phosphate implanted into the proxymal metadiaphysis on bone regeneration and cancellous bone tissue within reaction zone. We revealed that the resorption of EasyGraft and amorphous calcium phosphate optimized bone regeneration. Regeneration was accompanied by decreased specific area of the particles implanted and increased integration index and specific density of trabeculae within the reaction zone. These processes were most pronounced from day 15 to day 30 post-implantation.

Key words: bone defect, bone reparative regeneration, amorphous calcium phosphate, EasyGraft

G.V. Kozlovskaya, A.M. Kosyreva, V.A. Mkhitarov, S.G. Vasil’eva, O.V. Makarova
Cytokine gene expression and morphological changes in the liver and testes of rats during systemic inflammatory response
42

Details

CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER AND TESTES OF RATS DURING SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

G.V. Kozlovskaya, A.M. Kosyreva, V.A. Mkhitarov, S.G. Vasil’eva, O.V. Makarova

We carried out a comparative study of the severity of morphological changes and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the liver and the testes of Wistar rats under systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by the high dose of lipopolysaccharide. On day 1 after LPS injection, pronounced alterative and inflammatory changes were found in the liver, such as local necroses, diffused and severe vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes correlated with the high level of IFN-γ expression in the liver. After LPS injection, minimal changes were found in the testes, namely irregular vascular hyperemia, stasis, sludge formation and increased diameter of the Leydig cells nuclei accompanied with low expression of IFN-γ.

Key words: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, liver, testes, proinflammatory cytokines, interferon-γ

REVIEWS

I.M. Bogdanova
Immunological mechanisms of sepsis and new approaches to its treatment
48

Details

IMMUNOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF SEPSIS AND NEW APPROACHES TO ITS TREATMENT

I.M. Bogdanova

Sepsis is a complex pathophysiological process primarily associated with severe infection. At the early phase of sepsis, excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators leads to tissue destruction and the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and septic shock. Unregulated anti-inflammatory response causes the reprogramming of leukocytes and changes in immune status. The development of immunosuppression and the inhibition of innate and adaptive immune response is the indisputable complication of sepsis. Thus, sepsis can be regarded as an imbalance between pro-inflammatory reactions designed to eliminate the pathogens and at the same time responsible for the tissue damage, and anti-inflammatory response limiting excessive inflammation but at the same time increasing susceptibility of the host to secondary infections. Controlled balance between these often competing processes determines the fate of the individual. This review is devoted to the discussion of the key components of pro- and anti-inflammatory response to sepsis and description of a novel therapeutic strategy aimed at restoring immune functions after sepsis.

Key words: inflammation, sepsis, proinflammatory mediators, Toll-like receptors, immunosuppression, regulatory T cells, apoptos, complement system, multipotentmesenchymal stromal cells

М.N. Boltovskaya, К.А. Artemyeva, O.V. Kalyuzhin, I.I. Stepanova, N.A. Starosvetskaya
Murine model of spontaneous abortions
55

Details

MURINE MODEL OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS

М.N. Boltovskaya, К.А. Artemyeva, O.V. Kalyuzhin, I.I. Stepanova, N.A. Starosvetskaya

In the review article some characteristics of well-studied murine model of spontaneous pregnancy loss that shares features with human unexplained recurrent miscarriage are presented (the origins of the CBAxDBA model, history of the mouse strains, pregnancy outcome, phenotype of CBA/J x DBA/2 matings, immunological modes of pregnancy loss).

Key words: recurrent pregnancy loss, murine model of spontaneous abortions

K.A. Lusta, A.N. Orekhov
The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators in atherogenesis
60

Details

THE ROLE OF INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS IN ATHEROGENESIS

K.A. Lusta, A.N. Orekhov

The review presents the basic theories of the origin and development of atherosclerosis (AS), the main cause of cardiovascular disease. Emphasis is placed on the theory of inflammation, which is a central mechanism of atherogenesis. Among all the immune cells, monocyticmacrophages (MPh) are the major contributors to the atherosclerotic lesions of the vessel walls as they promote occurrence of the sites of arterial inflammation, produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen, secrete a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to stimulation, phagocytize modified LDL and then are transformed into foam cells. The processes of MPhdifferentiation into proinflammatory (M1), anti-inflammatory (M2) and regulatory phenotypes are described and attention is paid to factors that induce MPh polarization. The transcription factors involved in the MPh differentiation and functioning are also outlined. The functions of the polarized MPh population are outlines with special attention to the description of produced cytokines, chemokines as well as M1 and M2 receptors. A separate section is also devoted to the results of immunohistochemical studies on the identification and localization of the main markers of M1 and M2 in the wall of the human aorta at different stages of AS lesions. The participation of T cells in atherogenesis as well as the importance of cell-cell interactions is described. The last section is devoted to the medical aspects of the study of AS processes. Elucidation the role of the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors in atherogenesis will allow developing new pharmacological and gene therapeutic treatments of this disease.

Key words: atherosclerosis, atherogenesis, aorta, immune cells, macrophages, monocytes, cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory mediators, transcription factors, immunohistochemistry

INFORMATION

United XII Congress International Association morphologists and VII Congress of the Russian Scientific Medical Society of Anatomists, Histology and Embryology
73

Our journal: content of issues