CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 4(12) / 2014

SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL REVIEWED JOURNAL
the Research Institute of Human Morphology

EDITORIALS, LECTURES

 

R.S. Petrov, L.F. Kurilo, N.S. Demikova, S.I. Kozlova
Hereditary syndromes involving disorders of the embryonic development of the oral cavity
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HEREDITARY SYNDROMES INVOLVING DISORDERS OF THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORAL CAVITY

R.S. Petrov, L.F. Kurilo, N.S. Demikova, S.I. Kozlova

Congenital malformations, their classification, terminology, and the detection rate in the population are discussed in the review. Genetically determined congenital malformations of the oral cavity included as symptoms (clinical signs) in the syndroms are decribed. For more detailed information on these syndroms see the guidebook: Kozlova S.I., Demikova N.S.Hereditary syndromes and genetic counseling. Moscow, 2007, 448 p.

Key words: congenital malformations, multiple congenital malformations, congenital malformations of oral cavity organs, hereditary (genetic) diseases, tooth, gingivae, lips, jaw, tongue, palate

V.V. Yaglova, V.V. Yaglov
Molecular and biological aspects of inducing thyroid autoimmunity in animals
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MOLECULAR AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INDUCING THYROID AUTOIMMUNITY IN ANIMALS

V.V. Yaglova, V.V. Yaglov

The article reviews experimental data on thyroid autoantigens, loss of self tolerance to thyroid proteins, molecular events leading to thyroid autoimmunity, conventional and novel approaches to induce autoimmune process and principles for successfully induced autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves’ disease.

Key words: thyroid autoimmunity, thyroid gland, experimental models, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, autoantigens

CLINICAL MORPHOLOGY

K.A. Lusta, A.N. Orekhov
Double immunoenzyme staining in the study of the mechanisms of atherogenesis in human aorta
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DOUBLE IMMUNOENZYME STAINING IN THE STUDY OF THE MECHANISMS OF ATHEROGENESIS IN HUMAN AORTA

K.A. Lusta, A.N. Orekhov

Patterns of localization and degree of expression of the markers of inflammation were studied immunohistochemically (including double immunoenzyme staining) in the human aortic wall during atherogenesis. At the initial stages of atherosclerosis, the differences in the localization of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory chemokines (CCL18) were revealed. The association of TNFα with immune and smooth muscle cells and diffuse distribution of CCL18 as well as a significantly increased expression of CCL18 marker in atherosclerotic lesions and their translocation from the upper zone of the intima to musculo-elastic layer and media were demonstrated. Simultaneously, the reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokine, TNFα, was recorded with the development of atherosclerosis.

Key words: immunohistochemistry, double staining method, atherosclerosis, atherogenesis, aorta, immune cells, inflammation, cytokines, chemokines, TNFα, CCL18

I.M. Rasstrigina
Role of multinuclear giant cells of the uteroplacental region in normal pregnancy
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ROLE OF MULTINUCLEAR GIANT CELLS OF THE UTEROPLACENTAL REGION  IN NORMAL PREGNANCY

I.M. Rasstrigina

During invasion, the cytotrophoblast differentiates into three invasive elements, such as interstitial cytotrophoblast, endovascular cytotrophoblast, and multinuclear giant cells. Cytotrophoblast cells synthesize proteolytic enzymes that break down the tissues through which it moves. We investigated expression of metalloproteinases type 2 and type 9 in all the cell elements of cytotrophoblast invasion. Metalloproteinase type 2 proved to be expressed throughout all the pregnancy, the expression strength decreased to the fullterm period of gestation. Intensive expression of metalloproteinase type 9 began at the late first trimester and gradually increased to the full-term period. Thus, multinuclear giant cells are the functionally active elements of the cytotrophoblastinvasion during the second half of pregnancy They synthesize metalloproteinases type 2 and type 9 required for normal movement of interstitial mononuclear cytotrophoblastthrough the endometrium and the myometrium and restructuring of spiral and radial arteries. In the full-term period, restructuring of the arteries was completed, and the number of multinucleated giant cells increased. Apparently, it was necessary for preparing the uterus for childbirth. The number of multinucleated giant cells and their predominance over the interstitial cytotrophoblast indicate successful cytotrophoblastinvasion and the readiness of the uterus for delivery.

Key words: cytotrophoblast, pregnancy, invasion, metalloproteinases, multinuclear giant cells

EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY

A.G. Babaeva, N.M. Gevorkyan, N.V. Tishevskaya, I.A. Komarova
Effects of preparations of total RNA from lymphoid cells of rat spleen on in vitro erythropoiesis
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EFFECTS OF PREPARATIONS OF TOTAL RNA FROM LYMPHOID CELLS OF RAT SPLEEN ON IN VITRO ERYTHROPOIESIS

A.G. Babaeva, N.M. Gevorkyan, N.V. Tishevskaya, I.A. Komarova

Total RNA isolated from lymphoid cells of the spleen, has a pronounced effect on the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cells in a culture of erythroblastic islets. Preparations of total RNA having no allogeneic restriction reproduce specific effects and phasicactivity of T lymphocytes in relation to erythroid tissue, which activity they have acquired in the course of reparative regeneration of bone marrow erythroid lineage.

Key words: RNA, lymphocytes, erythropoiesis, erythroblastic islet

A.G. Babaeva, N.M. Gevorkyan, N.V. Tishevskaya, I.A. Komarova
Influence of preparations of total RNA from splenic lymphoid cells on erythropoiesis in the culture of erythroblastic islets from rats with polycythemia
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INFLUENCE OF PREPARATIONS OF TOTAL RNA FROM SPLENIC LYMPHOID CELLS ON ERYTHROPOIESIS IN THE CULTURE OF ERYTHROBLASTIC ISLETS FROM RATS WITH POLYCYTHEMIA

A.GBabaevaN.MGevorkyanN.VTishevskayaI.AKomarova

RNA preparations isolated from lymphoid cells of the spleen of intact rats and the animals within 17 hours after blood loss, stimulate the development of erythroid cells in polycythemiccultures of erythroblastic islets by de novo and de repeto activation of erythropoiesis. RNA preparation from spleen lymphoid cells of anematized animals has more pronounced effect, and within 24 hours in a culture restores initially inhibited rate of erythroblastic islets formation to physiological levels.

Key words: RNA, lymphocytes, erythropoiesis, erythroblastic islet, posttransfusion polycythemia

P.L. Gorelikov
The role of cholinergic synaptic activity in the energy homeostasis of the cranial cervical sympathetic ganglion
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THE ROLE OF CHOLINERGIC SYNAPTIC ACTIVITY IN THE ENERGY HOMEOSTASIS OF THE CRANIAL CERVICAL SYMPATHETIC GANGLION

P.L. Gorelikov

Quantitative analysis of energy indicators in pharmacological deprivation nicotine sensitive cholinergic (H-HE) synapses was performed in the rabbits cranial cervical sympathetic ganglia (CSSG). Blockade of H-HE synapses leads to a significant, proportional to the degree of the blocking effect, deficit of the content adenylatemacroergs, deformation LDH isozyme spectrum, in which, against the background of a significant reduction in the activity of the anode fractions (LDH-1 and LDH-2) and total LDH, cathodic fraction (LDH-4 and LDH-5) are not detected, and in the conditions of complete blockade also LDH-3 disappears from the spectrum. The progressive decline in activity of LDH and its isoforms in strengthening the blocking effect is observed at the cellular level in neurons and ganglion satellite gliаl cells. The established regularities allow to consider N-cholinergic synaptic processes as a factor in regulating energy homeostasis sympathetic ganglion.

Key words: sympathetic ganglion, cholinergic synapses, isoforms of LDH, adenylatemacroergs

E.A. Postovalova
Morphological changes of thymus and subpopulation of lymphocytes of peripheral blood in experimental acute and chronic ulcerative colitis
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MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THYMUS AND SUBPOPULATION OF LYMPHOCYTES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE AND CHRONIC ULCERATIVE COLITIS

E.A. Postovalova

We have investigated the change of thymus morphology and subpopulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in experimental acute and chronic colitis. We have carried out the morphological and morphometric research of thymus and the evaluation of subpopulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry of mature male mice C57Bl/6. In the thymus of mice with acute colitis the accidental involution of III stage was found out. III stage of thymic accidental involution was distinguished by the devastation of thymus cortex, the increase of the size of thymic bodies and the number of bodies on the late development phase among them. In the thymus of mice with chronic colitis the accidental involution of II stage was found out. II stage of thymic accidental involution was distinguished by the hyperplasia of thymic cortex and the increasing of thymic bodies size and the number of bodies on the late development phase. The number of B-(CD19), Cytotoxic T-(CD8) and T-regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+) decreased in peripheral blood of mice with acute colitis, whereas mice with chronic colitis had an heightened number of B- and T-regulatory lymphocytes, and reduced immunoregulatoryindex. Both of acute and chronic colitis a direct correlation between the index of area’s ratio of thymic bodies to cystiform cavities and the number of T-regulatory lymphocytes have been identifed. As well an opposite correlation between the number of thymic bodies withkeratohyalin and T-regulatory lymphocytes have been detected. Hence the number of thymicbodies of late development phase is related to the number of T-regulatory cells in peripheral blood of mice with acute and chronic coliti, which reflects the central regulatory function of thymus in immunological disorders and development of inflammation.

Key words: thymus, morphology, experimental colitis, dextran sulfate sodium, T-regulatory lymphocytes, mice C57Bl/6

REVIEWS

N.B. Tikhonova, S.N. Serebriakov, K.Sh. Matevosian, A.P. Aleksankin, N.A. Kadykova, V.V. Aleksankina, Yu.E. Kozlovskii, O.V. Makarova
Experimental models of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
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EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF NEONATAL NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS

N.B. Tikhonova, S.N. Serebriakov , K.Sh. Matevosian, A.P. Aleksankin,  N.A. Kadykova, V.V. Aleksankina, Yu.E. Kozlovskii, O.V. Makarova

Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious illness of heterogeneous etiology occurring in the early postpartum period. It develops amidst the immaturity of local protective mechanisms and damage to the intestinal wall. The data are presented on the etiology of NEC and characteristic morphological changes in the intestinal wall. The basic experimental models of the disease are discussed in terms of their concordance with the clinical forms of NEC.

Key words: experimental model, neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, etiology, clinical forms, histological changes in the intestinal wall

HISTORY OF MEDICINE

V.L. Zagrebin, M.V. Mnihovich
Life and basic scientific work Professor AG Knorre (the 100th anniversary of the birth of the scientist)
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CHRONICLE

Report of the 26th European Congress of Pathologists in London
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