CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 3(15) / 2015

SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL REVIEWED JOURNAL
the Research Institute of Human Morphology

EDITORIAL

A.L. Chernyayev, K.S.Voytkovskaya
Syndrome of acute lung injury: diagnosing, pathogenesis, experimental models
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SYNDROME OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY: DIAGNOSING, PATHOGENESIS, EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

A.L. Chernyayev, K.S.Voytkovskaya

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinical syndrome with clear criteria for the histologic diagnosis of lung tissues injury. ALI is widespread in clinical practice and has a high lethality. In this article, we review diagnosing, clinical picture, ethiology, pathogenesis, and animal models of ALI. 

Key words: syndrome of acute lung injury, experiment, lipopolysaccharide

CLINICAL MORPHOLOGY

Yu.R. Zyuzya, Yu.G. Parkhomenko, V.N. Zimina, M.V. Alvarez Figeroa
Morphological verification of hiv-related mycobacteriosis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria Myc. avium
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MORPHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION OF HIV‑RELATED MYCOBACTERIOSIS CAUSED BY NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA MYC. AVIUM

Yu.R. Zyuzya, Yu.G. Parkhomenko, V.N. Zimina, M.V. Alvarez Figeroa

In order to study morphological features of HIV-associated mycobacteriosis caused by nontuberculousmycobacteria Myc. avium, autopsy (9 persons) and operational and biopsy material from 24 patients was comprehensively investigated. The morphological pattern has features determined by the similarity of macro- and microscopic patterns with histiocytic and clear cell tumors, chronic inflammatory processes to macrophage reaction and granulomatous diseases including TB. Complete autopsy study using histobacterioscopic techniques, immunohistochemical studies with infectious antibodies and molecular diagnostics specifying the type of mycobacteria provides the opportunity to make the correct morphological identification of the disease. Late diagnosis of mycobacteriosis caused by Myc. avium as well as clinical and morphological misinterpretation of the disease may evolve epidemic outbreaks among immunocompromised persons. Cases are presented of M. avium mycobacteriosis combined with other infectious diseases.

Key words: HIV infection, non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis Myc. avium, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections

A.P. Kalinin, T.V. Bezuglova, G.A. Polyakova, T.A. Britvin
Nonmetastatic adrenal tumors in patients with malignant neoplasms of other organs
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NONMETASTATIC ADRENAL TUMORS IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS OF OTHER ORGANS 

A.P. Kalinin, T.V. Bezuglova, G.A. Polyakova, T.A. Britvin

The article provides an analysis of pathological examination of surgical specimens from 16 patients diagnosed with adrenal tumors associated with malignant tumors of the kidneys (9 cases), thyroid glands (4 cases), lungs (2 cases) and with the gastrointestinal stromal tumor of stomach (1 case). Malignant tumor of the adrenal gland in combination with malignancy of the thyroid gland was found only in 1 patient. Metastasis to adrenal gland was not revealed.

Key words: adrenal tumors, kidney cancer, lung tumors, thyroid tumors, combined tumors, histology

D.D. Zerbino, E.A. Zimba, G.L. Stolyar
Polyarteritis nodosa: clinicopathological observation
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POLYARTERITIS NODOSA: CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL OBSERVATION

D.D. Zerbino, E.A. Zimba, G.L. Stolyar

We report a fatal case of polyarteritis nodosa in a 69-year-old man. Xenobiotic such as nitrocellulose paint was the ethiological agent responsible for the development of this disease. In this article, we analyze the difficulties in pre-mortem diagnosis of this disease caused by varied and diverse symptomatology of polyarteritis nodosa, which mimics many diseases including cancer. As a result, the correct diagnosis may be established at the later stages of the disease and sometimes only at autopsy.

Key words: systemic vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, etiology, xenobiotic, difficulty of diagnosis

EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY

I.V. Arutyunyan, Y.G. Onishchenko, T.Kh. Fatkhudinov, I.I. Ryumina, A.V. Makarov, A.V. Elchaninov, E.Y. Kananykhina, G.B. Bolshakova
Peculiarities of primary epithelial-like cell culture from breast milk
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PECULIARITIES OF PRIMARY EPITHELIAL‑LIKE CELL CULTURE FROM BREAST MILK

I.V. Arutyunyan, Y.G. Onishchenko, T.Kh. Fatkhudinov, I.I. Ryumina, A.V. Makarov, A.V. Elchaninov, E.Y. Kananykhina, G.B. Bolshakova

The article presents the study of morphological and functional properties of primary epithelial-like cell culture isolated from human milk. The samples of breast milk were transferred to a culture medium without prior centrifugation. Colonies of epithelial-like cells appeared after 5-7 days of incubation, colonies of fibroblast-like cells and mixed colonies appeared 1-2 weeks later. Fibroblast-like cells, unlike epithelial-like cells, were able to form a tubular net on the surface of the basal membrane matrix. Myoepithelial cells prevailed in primary culture, and 15.3±5.5% cells expressed marker of luminal epithelium cytokeratin 18. Already at passage 0 we observed emergence of multinucleated cells in one of the cultures. These cells expressed Ki67, vimentin, and CD44, 14.6% of them also expressed cytokeratin 18. A mechanism of multinucleated cells formation and their relationship to the possible transformation of mammary epithelial cells requires further studies.

Key words: breast milk, primary culture, epithelial-like cells, polykaryons

A.S. Zherebiatiev, A.M. Kamyshnyi
Influence of simvastatin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on the expression of pattern recognition receptors and transcriptional regulation of T-helper cells by colonic lymphocytes during experimental oxazolone-induced colitis in rats
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INFLUENCE OF SIMVASTATIN AND INTERLEUKIN‑1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST ON THE EXPRESSION OF PATTERN RECOGNITION RECEPTORS AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF T‑HELPER CELLS BY COLONIC LYMPHOCYTES DURING EXPERIMENTAL OXAZOLONE‑INDUCED COLITIS IN RATS

A.S. Zherebiatiev, A.M. Kamyshnyi

We studied the possibility for correction of experimental colitis in rats using simvastatin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with a focus on the expression of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, RIG-I and transcription factors T-beta, GATA-3, RORγt, and Foxp3 by colonic lymphocytes. The immunopositive lymphocytes were determined using direct and indirect immunofluorescence techniques with rat monoclonal antibodies. Simvastatin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist seemed to be beneficial in oxazolone-induced rat colitis model via modulation of the expression of pattern recognition receptors in lymphocytes and improving the balance between different subsets of colonic T-helper cells. 

Key words: colitis, pattern recognition receptors, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), simvastatin

D.E. Grigorenko, K.A.Vasyanina
Lymphoid structures in the duodenal wall and peyer’s patches оf ileum in rat models of hypokinesia
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LYMPHOID STRUCTURES IN THE DUODENAL WALL AND PEYER’S PATCHES ОF ILEUM IN RAT MODELS OF HYPOKINESIA 

D.E. Grigorenko, K.A.Vasyanina

We studied restructuring cytoarchitecture of lymphoid tissue in duodenal wall and lymphoid (Peyer’s) patch of rat ileum after 30-day exposure to hypokinesia. Damaging effect of hypokinesia on the function of lymphoid tissue, most pronounced in the duodenal wall, was revealed. High level of destruction of lymphoid cells in lymphoid patches is accompanied by lymphocytopoiesis in germinal centers of lymphoid nodules. The proportion of plasma cells increases in the inter-nodular area indicating the development of compensatory processes during prolonged impact of hypokinesia. 

Key words: hypokinesia, lymphoid tissue, duodenum, Peyer’s patches, lymphocytopoiesis

REVIEWS

A.P. Milovanov, V.V. Malinovskaya, N.V. Zarotchentseva, M.A. Chistyakov, T.V. Fokina, I.M. Rasstigina, A.V. Mikaelyan
Papillomavirus infection in the functional system mother-placenta-fetus and in newborn
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PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION IN THE FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM MOTHER‑PLACENTA‑FETUS AND IN NEWBORN

A.P. Milovanov, V.V. Malinovskaya, N.V. Zarotchentseva, M.A. Chistyakov, T.V. Fokina, I.M. Rasstigina, A.V. Mikaelyan

The review presents characteristics of the course of human papillomavirus infection in mother-placenta-fetus system and in newborns. Maximal HPV was detected in women with cervicitis, cervical erosion, cervical dysplasia, polyps and warts on the cervix. The threat of pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortion, missed abortion) occurs in pregnants. In the second trimester, pathogenicity of this virus leads to increased miscarriages. Detection of human papillomavirus is minimal in the third trimester placenta. Cytological assay found the virus in naso – and oropharynx of newborns in the absence of visible manifestations. The features of pathogenetic treatment of this infection using human recombinant interferon – VIFERON-α2 are discussed.

Key words: papillomavirus infection, mother-placenta-fetus system, ways of infection transmission, pathology characteristics

I.M. Bogdanova, M.N. Boltovskaya
Immune control of reproduction. The role of regulatory t-cells in the induction of immunological tolerance in pregnancy
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IMMUNE CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION. THE ROLE OF REGULATORY T CELLS IN THE INDUCTION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE IN PREGNANCY

I.M. Bogdanova, M.N. Boltovskaya

Creating the tolerant microenvironment in feto-maternal contact zone determines the successful development of pregnancy. The regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the key subpopulation contributing to the suppression of the immune response of maternal effector T cells on fetal alloantigens of paternal origin. Tregs deficiency is associated with implantation disorders and spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy. There are two subclasses of CD4(+)Tregs, natural Tregs (nTregs) originated from the thymus, and induced Tregs (iTregs), which develop in the periphery after antigenic stimulation of classical CD4(+) Т cells in the presence of TGFβ and IL-2. Suppression of the immune response by Tregs involves a wide range of coordinated regulatory mechanisms, which include the production of inhibitory cytokines, cytolysis of effector-target cells, changing metabolism, and the functions of antigen-presenting cells. This review discusses the origin and functions of Tregs, their contribution to maternal tolerance to the semi-allogenicfetus and analysis of the possible mechanisms underlying immunologically mediated pregnancy complications linked with Tregs deficiency.

Key words: pregnancy, regulatory T cells, feto-maternal tolerance

N.V. Yaglova, V.V. Yaglov
Novel aspects in studies of adipose tissue development
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NOVEL ASPECTS IN STUDIES OF ADIPOSE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT

N.V. Yaglova, V.V. Yaglov

The article reviews novel insights into development of white and brown adipose tissues, transcriptional regulation of differentiation of adipocytes, mechanisms of induction of previously unknown brite adipose tissue and development of new therapeutic approaches to treatment of obesity based on transdifferentiation of adipocytes.

Key words: white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, brite adipose tissue, development, irisin

HISTORY OF MEDICINE

G.G. Aminova, V.M. Gorlushkin
The museum of the Institute of human morphology
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THE MUSEUM OF THE INSTITUTE OF HUMAN MORPHOLOGY

G.G. Aminova, V.M. Gorlushkin

The article provides information on the history of the museum, its collections and prospects of its development.

Key words: history of museum, preparations, human organs

CHRONICLE

27 th European Congress of Pathologists
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OBITUARY

In memory of Lev M. Nepomnyashchikh
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