CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 4(16) / 2015

SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL REVIEWED JOURNAL
the Research Institute of Human Morphology

CLINICAL MORPHOLOGY

T.V. Bezuglova
Tenascins С and W as biomarkers of malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytoma
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TENASCINS С AND W AS BIOMARKERS OF MALIGNANT POTENTIAL OF ADRENAL PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA

T.V. Bezuglova

We studied the level of immunohistochemical expression of tenascin – C and tenascin W adrenal pheochromocytomas with different degree of malignancy (21cases). We showed that immunohistochemicaldetectiont of expression of these tenascins can be used as the marker for predicting of the malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytomas.

Key words: adrenal pheochromocytoma, immunohistochemistry, tenascin-C, tenascin-W

I.V. Vasilenko, R.B. Kondratyuk, E.M. Bakurova, R.V. Buzina
Tumor microenvironment in the main histological types of gastric cancer
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TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT IN THE MAIN HISTOLOGICAL TYPES OF GASTRIC CANCER

I.V. Vasilenko, R.B. Kondratyuk, E.M. Bakurova, R.V. Buzina

The purpose of the work was to reveal the relationship between the subtypes of stromal fibroblasts and individual morphological features of tumor cells in gastric cancer of different histological types. Individual tumor properties were examined immunohistochemically in 57 cases of gastric cancer (GC). The tumor-promoting abilities were compared with two distinct carcinoma-associated fibroblast subtypes (CAFs). The subtype I of them (CAF I associated with stromal hyaluronic acid) was detected by alcianophilia at pH 2.5. The CAFII subtype was determined by the cytoplasmic expression of α-smooth muscle actin. CAF I prevailed in the carcinomas of intestinal and mixed type with focal, often incomplete EMT. It was associated with higher or moderate proliferative activity of tumor cells (according to Ki-67 expression and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) activity). Prevalence of CAF II in diffuse type GC was accompanied by widespread and often full EMT. In most cases (16 of 24), proliferative activity of tumor cells was low or not detectable along with decreased TP activity in diffuse type carcinomas (p <0,05). Endocrine differentiation was revealed in most samples of GC (71,4% of intestinal type carcinomas; 83,3% of mixed type GC, and 100% of diffuse type GC). It indicated the pluripotency of tumor cells in the samples apparently due to the presence of tumor stem cells. In diffuse type of GC and in mixed type carcinomas, invasion of blood vessels was undependent on CAF types. In the intestinal type carcinomas it was associated with the predominance of CAF I (58,3 %) or CAF II (77,8 %). It could be suggested that CAF subtypes can determinate the EMT features of gastric cancers of main histological types.

Key words: gastric cancer, fibroblasts epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer-associated

S.A. Mikhalev, O.A. Latyshkevich, E.Y. Karaganova, L.M. Mikhaleva, T.G. Barhina, V.P. Chernikov
Electron microscopic characteristics of uteroplacental area in women with urogenital infection in early pregnancy
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ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF UTEROPLACENTAL AREA IN WOMEN WITH UROGENITAL INFECTION IN EARLY PREGNANCY

S.A. Mikhalev, O.A. Latyshkevich, E.Y. Karaganova, L.M. Mikhaleva, T.G. Barhina, V.P. Chernikov

The article presents the ultrastructural features of utero-placental area in women with urogenital infection in early pregnancy. Ultrastructural changes in syncytiotrophoblast, decidual cells, multinucleated giant cells, and vessels of the microvasculature are described.

Key words: urogenital infections, chronic endometritis, uterine-placental area, electron microscopic examination

I.M. Rasstrigina
Expression of N-cadherin by multinuclear giant cytotrophoblastic cells during uncomplicated pregnancy
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EXPRESSION OF N-CADHERIN BY MULTINUCLEAR GIANT CYTOTROPHOBLASTIC CELLS DURING UNCOMPLICATED PREGNANCY

I.M. Rasstrigina

Cytotrophoblastic invasion is a key event in human development. Different molecular mechanisms are involved in this process. N-cadherin plays an important role in the onset and progression of cancer, but its role in human trophoblastic cell invasion is unclear. Giant multinuclear trophoblastic cells were studied in the samples of abortions of 7-17 weeks of gestation (n=9), of hysterectomy surgery at 18-25 weeks of gestation (n=9) and cesarean section biopsy specimens (38-40 weeks, n=8) immunohistochemically for the expression of N-cadherinand cytokeratin and morphometrically. We found that the level of N-cadherin expression in these cells is high in early pregnancy and lowers in the 3rd trimester of normal pregnancy.

Key words: placenta, cytotrophoblast, invasion, pregnancy, giant multinuclear trophoblastic cells

E.V. Novichkov, O.V. Vorobieva, O.N. Novichkova
Nuclear and cell morphometry of endometrioid ovarian cancer in assessment of tumor metastasis
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NUCLEAR AND CELL MORPHOMETRY OF ENDOMETRIOID OVARIAN CANCER IN ASSESSMENT OF TUMOR METASTASIS 

E.V. Novichkov, O.V. Vorobieva, O.N. Novichkova

The aim of our study was to study the morphological features of tumor parenchyma taking into account the patterns of progression of endometrioid ovarian cancer. Morphometric signs of the high risk for metastasis of endometrioid ovarian cancer are the increased area of tumor cells (p=0,36) and nuclei (p=0,38) with the simultaneous increase in nuclear/cell ratio (p=0,049). Metastatic endometrioid tumors of the female gonads are featured by cube-shaped cells, which number in the field of view exceeded 28,3±2,46, p=0.043. The larger size of the cancer cells (p=0,012) associated with high cataplasia may predict early implantation metastases in the peritoneum. Further distribution of implantation metastases is associated with statistically significant decrease in the area of cancer cells (p=0,034) and increased nuclear/cell ratio (p=0,049). The average life expectancy of women with metastases is inversely proportional to the magnitude of nuclear/cell ratio.

Key words: ovary, endometrial, prognosis, carcinoma, morphology, morphometry, metastasis, cancer

A.E. Proshchina, Y.S. Krivova, V.M. Barabanov, S.V. Saveliev
Ontogenetic changes of B-cells distribution in the human pancreas
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ONTOGENETIC CHANGES OF B-CELLS DISTRIBUTION IN THE HUMAN PANCREAS

A.E. Proshchina, Y.S. Krivova, V.M. Barabanov, S.V. Saveliev

The purpose of the work was to study the changes in the number, the average size of the endocrine pancreas and the content of B cells during human ontogenesis. We analyzed the pancreatic autopsy samples, which were obtained from 30 human fetuses of 10-40 weeks of gestation and 9 adults. The majority of pancreatic islets were 40 – 100 μm in size. In such small islets, the number of B-cells exceeded the total number of B-cells in the large islets, which diameter was more than 100 µm. In the large fetal islets, amount of B-cells increased after the 12th gestational week due to merging of mantle islets and appearance of bipolar islets (from 14 weeks) and mature ones (from 25 weeks). In adults, the percentage of mature islets was only 10-15% of all islet, although they contained up to 35-40% of all pancreatic B-cells.

Key words: B-cells, islets of Langerhans, human ontogenesis

EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY

D.N. Voronkov, Yu.V. Dikalova, R.M. Khudoerkov
Morphological heterogeneity of astrocytes in rat susbtantia nigra
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MORPHOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY OF ASTROCYTES IN RAT SUSBTANTIA NIGRA

D.N. Voronkov, Yu.V. Dikalova, R.M. Khudoerkov

The aim of this study was to identify morphochemical features of astroglia in dopaminergic brain structures, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. We examined localization of the following glial markers: GFAP, S100b, glutamine synthetase, aquaporine-4, as well as the shape and distribution of GFAP-positive astrocytes in substantia nigra and striatum of intact Wistar rats. Analysis revealed that astrocyteshas prominent morphological differences in the different structures of the nigrostriatal system. Astrocytes in substantia nigra pars compacta characterized by a smaller area of gliovascular and glioneuronal contacts, thatmay have an impact on the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons.

Key words: astrocytes, glia, substantia nigra, striatum, morphometry, glial proteins

V.A. Mkhitarov, O.V. Makarova, V.V. Fedoseeva, A.S. Khalansky, L.P. Mikhailova, S.E. Gelperina, O.O. Maksimenko, V.A. Razjivina, V.Yu. Balabjan
Volume estimation of experimental neoformations by means of 3D reconstruction
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VOLUME ESTIMATION OF EXPERIMENTAL NEOFORMATIONS BY MEANS OF 3D RECONSTRUCTION

V.A. Mkhitarov, O.V. Makarova, V.V. Fedoseeva, A.S. Khalansky, L.P. Mikhailova, S.E. Gelperina, O.O. Maksimenko, V.A. Razjivina, V.Yu. Balabjan

Objective: the development of the method of 3D reconstruction for the volumetric estimation of experimental glioblastoma 101.8 in Wistar rats treated and non-treated with doxorubicin. Materials and methods. 20 male Wistar rats with the body mass of 200-220 g underwent the intracranial implantation of glioblastoma 101.8 cells. In the first group, all 10 animals were intact. In the second group, the rats received doxorubicin solution in water in the total amount of 4.5 mg/kg of body weight. On the 14th day, all animals were killed by inhalation of ethyl oxide. Serial step sections of 7 μm at 105-μm intervals stroke were scanned with the 1200 dpi resolution. Results. A three-dimensional model of the glioblastoma 101.8 designed for identification, processing and measurement was developed using the program Image Pro Premiere 3D Media Cybernetics. Conclusion. The procedure of 3D reconstruction by serial step slides with the use of the morphometric program Image Pro Premiere 3D Media Cybernetics has shown high effectiveness and accuracy of the method, which allows it to be used in experimental and preclinical investigations.

Key words: 3D-reconstruction, glioblastoma 101.8, doxorubicin

I.V. Arutyunyan, L.V. Tsedik, V.P. Chernikov, E.Y. Kananykhina, T.Kh. Fatkhudinov, A.V. Makarov, A.V. Elchaninov, G.B. Bolshakova
Methodical features of estimation of cell adhesion to meshes based on mono- or multifilament fibers
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METHODICAL FEATURES OF ESTIMATION OF CELL ADHESION TO MESHES BASED ON MONO- OR MULTIFILAMENT FIBERS

I.V. Arutyunyan, L.V. Tsedik, V.P. Chernikov, E.Y. Kananykhina, T.Kh. Fatkhudinov, A.V. Makarov, A.V. Elchaninov, G.B. Bolshakova

The article presents the comparison of various methods to quantify cell adhesion to the surfaces of meshes based on monofilament polydioxanone (PDO) fibers, multifilament poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fibers, and multifilament poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA) fibers. We showed that routine techniques of light and fluorescence microscopy (hematoxylin- eosin or DAPI staining) were sufficient to quantify the number of cells adhered to the smooth surface of monofilament PDO meshes, but not to meshes based on optically dense multifilament PGA and PGLA fibers. The seeding of multifilament meshes with vitally labeled cells which show the emission peak in the region of the spectrum with minimal autofluorescence of the mesh material provided the most accurate quantification of adhesion.

Key words: meshes, cell adhesion, monofilament polydioxanone fibers, multifilament poly(glycolic acid) 

fibers, multifilament poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) fibers

G.G. Aminova
Cellular composition in the lamina propria of the jejunal mucose membrane in C57Bl/6 mice after space flight
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CELLULAR COMPOSITION IN THE LAMINA PROPRIA OF THE JEJUNAL MUCOSE MEMBRANE IN C57BL/6 MICE AFTER SPACE FLIGHT

G.G. Aminova

We found that the changes in the jejunal wall in mice C57Bl/6 were more pronounced during space flight than in the ground-based experiments. The greatest changes occurred in the villi of the jejunum, where the number of plasma cells was sharply decreased. The total amount of lymphoid cells was reduced in the intestinal wall and the number of eosinophils was increased in a ground-based experiments. Different cell responses are apparently due to the lack of microgravity in the ground-based experiments.

Key words: space flight, jejunum, cells

DISCUSSIONS

I.I. Markov, V.I. Markova
Endolymphatical trabeculae: reality or artifacts?
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ENDOLYMPHATICAL TRABECULAE: REALITY OR ARTIFACTS?

I.I. Markov, V.I. Markova

The paper presents data supporting the hypothesis of the presence of endothelial trabeculae in the lumen of initial lymphatic microvessels. Their role in lymph formation and lymphocirculation is discussed.The aim of the work is to present new data on histologic structure of endolymphatical trabecular system. The work was carried out on the fragments of the intestine from mongrel adult intact dogs (n = 7) using routine histological techniques. The results provide a basis to consider endolymphatical trabeculae as objective reality rather than artifacts.

Key words: lymphatic microvessels, endothelial trabeculae

CHRONICLE

Scientific Conference with international participation "Environmental aspects of morphogenesis"
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Russian-Japanese scientific-practical seminar "Clinical and morphological diagnostics of gastrointestinal diseases"
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