CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 1(17) / 2016

SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL REVIEWED JOURNAL
the Research Institute of Human Morphology

CLINICAL MORPHOLOGY

N.А. Nefedova, О.А. Kharlova, P.G. Malkov, N.V. Danilova
Immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of marker Musashi- 1 in adenocarcinoma and benign colon neoplasms
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IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EXPRESSION OF MARKER MUSASHI- 1 IN ADENOCARCINOMA AND BENIGN COLON NEOPLASMS 

N.А. Nefedova, О.А. Kharlova, P.G. Malkov, N.V. Danilova

The goal of the work was to evaluate and compare the expression of Musashi-1 in adenocarcinoma and benign colon polyps. The study included 32 samples of colon adenocarcinoma and 86 samples of polyps. We carried out immunohistochemical study with anti-Musashi-1 antibody. Cytoplasmic Msi-1 level was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas than in the classical and serrated adenomas (p<0,01). In comparison with other groups, serrated adenomas do not show cytoplasmic Msi-1 expression more frequently. The expression of Msi-1 in benign tumors of the colon was first evaluated. Providing that Musashi-1 is a cancer stem cell marker, serrated lesions have low malignant potential compared with classical adenomas and colon cancer.

Key words: polyps of colon, colorectal cancer, Musashi-1

A.V. Asaturova, L.S. Ezhova, N.M. Fayzullina, L.V. Adamyan, G.N. Khabas
Tube-peritoneal junction: morphological and immunohistochemical features, the role in pelvic serous carcinoma pathogenesis
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TUBE-PERITONEAL JUNCTION: MORPHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL FEATURES, THE ROLE IN PELVIC SEROUS CARCINOMA PATHOGENESIS

A.V. Asaturova, L.S. Ezhova, N.M. Fayzullina, L.V. Adamyan, G.N. Khabas

The study investigated the morphological features tubal-peritoneal transition zone (transition of ciliated epithelium of fallopian tube into mesothelium). 195 fallopian tubes were investigated morphologically and immunohistochemically. Edema, blood and lymphatic vessels dilatation, inflammatory changes, transitional metaplasia were revealed. In addition, interposition of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and tubal-peritoneal transition zone was assessed. STIC diagnosed only in fallopian tube of patients with serous ovarian carcinoma, fimbrial part of fallopian tube very closed to transition zone was involved in 87%. Thus, tubal-peritoneal transition zone is supposed to be an analogue of the transition zones in other organs, which are supposed to be “hot spots” for neoplasia development, due to its proximity to serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in most cases. Further investigation of tubal-peritoneal transition zone is required to define its potential role in serous carcinogenesis.

Key words: transition zone, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, high-grade serous carcinoma, pathogenesis

EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY

A.M. Kosyreva, O.V. Makarova, E.Yu. Osmolovskaya
Age- and sex-related differences in thymic morphological and functional changes in Wistar rats with systemic inflammatory responce syndrome
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AGE- AND SEX-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN THYMIC MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS WITH SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONCE SYNDROME

A.M. Kosyreva, O.V. Makarova, E.Yu. Osmolovskaya

The aim of our research was to study age- and sex-related differences of morphology and function of the thymus in Wistar rats after LPS injection. The experiment was carried out on Wistar rats divided into three age groups as follows: infants (2 days aged rats), prepubertals or pups (10 days old rats) and sexually mature adults (3 month old animals). On the 1st day after LPS injection, the rats developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) combined with accidental thymic involution on different stages. As compared with infant and adult Wistarrats, prepubertals showed more pronounced involutive changes of the tymus characterized by accidental involution on later stages and activation of apoptosis of CD3- and CD3+ cells. More pronounced thymic changes in prepubertals could correlate with higher morbidity and mortality from infectious inflammatory diseases at early age. 

Key words: rat, systemic inflammatory responce syndrome, thymus, age- and sex-related differences

E.Yu. Kananykhina, G.B. Bolshakova
Quantitative characteristics of the extent of regeneration in the healing of dorsal and ventral rat skin wounds
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QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXTENT OF REGENERATION IN THE HEALING OF DORSAL AND VENTRAL RAT SKIN WOUNDS 

E.YU. Kananykhina, G.B. Bolshakova

Despite the large number of studies, many aspects of post-traumatic regeneration is still unclear. We have developed a reproducible model of full-thickness skin wound on the rat’s abdomen. The newly formed regenerate was similar to intact skin by its structure. The wound on the back of rats always healed with scar. The wound of   the abdominal skin closed significantly faster, and restoration of the lost area occurred more rapidly. The thickness of the wound and peri-wound skin reached control values    (intact skin) to the 30th day while the thickness of the scar on the back was reduced due to remodeling. The analysis of the healing of differently located wounds in the same animal will provide adequate comparison of reparative processes that determine the extent of regeneration.

Key words: full-thickness skin wound, experimental model, abdomen, back, scarring, regeneration

Y. Gao, E.A. Postovalova, M.T. Dobrynina, O.V. Makarova
Sex-related differences in morphological changes and immune disorders during experimental acute ulcerative colitis
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SEX-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND IMMUNE DISORDERS DURING EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE ULCERATIVE COLITIS

Y. Gao, E.A. Postovalova, M.T. Dobrynina, O.V. Makarova

The study of gender-related differences in immunе responses was conducted on C57Bl/6 mice with sulfate acute ulcerative colitis induced by 5% dextran sodium. Clinical examination, weight and colon length were measured. The degree of inflammatory alteration was evaluated morphologically. Flow cytometry was used for evaluating of lymphocyte populations in peripheral blood. It was revealed that C57Bl/6 males developed more severe acute colitis in comparison with females. They showed more profound clinical manifestations and weight lost. Morphological assay revealed that females developed catarrh-ulcerative form of colitis whereas males had been disposed to more severe fibrinopurulent-ulcerative form. Ulcers in colon were more common in males; males also showed lower score of ulcer reepithelization than females. Control males had lower levels of Foxp3+ regulatory T-lymphocytes, CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes and CD19+ B-lymphocytes in peripheral blood compared with control females. Females with acute ulcerative colitis had higher relative content of T-helpers (CD4+CD3+) and absolute content of regulatory T-lymphocytes (Foxp3+) than males.

Key words: gender differences, acute ulcerative colitis, morphology, C56Bl/6 mice, the subpopulation of lymphocyte

M.B. Chernysheva, I.S. Tsvetkov, M.E. Diatroptov, O.V. Makarova
Morphological changes in the internal organs and metabolic disorders during experimental alimentary obesity
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MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE INTERNAL ORGANS AND METABOLIC DISORDERS DURING EXPERIMENTAL ALIMENTARY OBESITY

M.B. Chernysheva, I.S. Tsvetkov, M.E. Diatroptov, O.V. Makarova

We developed an experimental model of alimentary obesity on mature adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were fed a high fat/carbohydrate diet during 40 weeks. Reproducibility of this obesity model reached 80%. Rats from the obesity group had increased BMI, body weight and weight of epididymal white adipose tissue. They also showed fatty liver disease and pancreatic lipodystrophy. In epididymal white adipose tissue we found the so-called crown-like structures and increased area of adipocytes. In comparison with the control group, obese rats had increased insulin and triglyceride serum levels, but the level of cholesterol was reduced, and the concentration of glucose, LDL and HDL was unchanged. Obese rats demonstrated decreased general testosterone and free testosterone in peripheral blood and increased absolute T cell and B cell counts.

Key words: alimentary obesity, adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, metabolic disorders, rats, males, Sprague-Dawley

REVIEWS

V.L. Zorin, A.I. Zorina, O.S. Grinakovskaya, A.A. Pulin, I.N. Korsakov, M.O. Mavlikeev, P.B. Kopnin, R.V. Deev, D.A. Timashkov, N.K. Vit’ko, I.I. Eremin
Clinical applications of cells with myogenic potential
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CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF CELLS WITH MYOGENIC POTENTIAL

V.LZorinA.IZorinaO.SGrinakovskayaA.APulinI.NKorsakovM.OMavlikeevP.BKopninR.VDeevD.ATimashkovN.KVitkoI.IEremin

Many diseases involving damage of skeletal muscles are incurable and fatal. Moreover, disruption of the musculoskeletal system as a result of injuries or various types of congenital and acquired diseases inevitably leads to a substantial reduction in quality of life. The technology with use of cells possessing myogenic potential is considered as one of the most promising approaches to solve the problem of effective restoration of skeletal muscles structure and function. Features, functions and phenotypic characteristics of satellite cells (SC) are reviewed as key factors of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. An analysis of preclinical and clinical research results concerning therapeutic possibilities of technology using SC is carried out. Data on the therapeutic use of stem cells of muscle and non-muscle origin for the treatment of skeletal muscles diseases is presented.

Key words: stem cells, cells with myogenic potential, satellite cells, myosatellites, skeletal muscle, muscular dystrophy, regeneration, cell therapy

I.M. Bogdanova
Inflammasomes: intracellular regulators of anti-infectious and inflammatory responses in the innate immune system
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INFLAMMASOMES: INTRACELLULAR REGULATORS OF ANTI-INFECTIOUS AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM

I.M. Bogdanova

Innate immunity is featured by its ability to recognize a wide range of pathogens via limited number of germline- encoded receptors called pattern-recognition receptors (PRR). PRR recognize conserved microbial signatures – pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs and also endogenous molecules or danger signals (DAMPs – danger-associated molecular patterns) released by injured cells. The PRR families include transmembraneproteins such as Toll-like receptors responsible for sensing invading pathogens at the plasma membrane and endosomes. The class of NOD (nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain) – like receptors (NLRs) that recognize PAMPs in intracellular compartments was recently allocated. NLRs are the critical components of the immune responses and of inflammation of the innate immune system. Several NLRs family members including NLRPs and IPAF serve as the central scaffold of caspase-1-activating cytoplasmic multidomain protein complexes, inflammasomes, which recognize microbial ligands and the products of metabolic stress. Inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation not only leads to the maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines of IL-1 family, but in certain cases induces pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death.

Key words: innate immunity, NOD- like receptors, inflammasomes, caspase-1, pyroptosis

DISCUSSIONS

A.E. Proshchina, Y.S. Krivova, V.M. Barabanov, S.V. Saveliev
Possible mechanism of formation of pancreatic islets in early prenatal development of human fetus
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POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF FORMATION OF PANCREATIC ISLETS IN EARLY PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FETUS

A.E. Proshchina, Y.S. Krivova, V.M. Barabanov, S.V. Saveliev

The aim of our work was to establish the mechanisms of pancreatic islets formation in early human ontogenesis. In this study, pancreatic autopsies obtained from 25 human fetuses between 10 to 20 weeks of gestation were investigated using immunohistochemical double staining. At gestational week 10 (post conception week 8), thickenings of ductal epithelial layer were found, in which endocrine cells were concentrated, forming “buds” on pancreatic ducts. During further development, the buds containing different types of endocrine cells separate from the ducts forming small clusters or mantle type islets. Further, endocrine cells are supposed to migrate through processes of S100+ cells from these small clusters and islets to other islets, being moved from the ducts due to the growth of pancreatic acinar part. Our study has shown that the mechanism of the pancreatic islets formation is similar to that of formation of secondary receptors described in many previous studies. 

Key words: islets of Langerhans, human ontogenesis, innervation, neuro-insular complexes

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