the Research Institute of Human Morphology


L.M. Mikhaleva, T.V. Galina, N.M. Marсaryan, I.V. Lyushina, R.A. Komleva
Clinical and morphological aspects of uterine scars at er cesarean section by Gusakov’s and Stark’s techniques


The aim of this research was clinical and morphological evaluation of uterine scar after cesarean section by Gusakov’s technique (GT) and Stark’s technique (ST). To this purpose, we conducted a morphological and morphometric study of the scars after performing GT (group 1) and ST (group2) in women with multiple deliveries. The problem of incomplete uterine scar after cesarean section remains relevant now. This surgery has been conducted since ancient times and is regularly improved.  The most common methods of cesarean section delivery used today are GT and ST. We examined morphologically 28 uterine scars after cesarean section stained with hematoxylin and eosin, by Mallory’s, method, by van Gieson’s method and performed immunohistochemical study using antibodies to collagen type IV, desmin, factor von Willebrand, vimentin as well as morphometric study. In both groups we observed ingrowth of muscle tissue into the scar area, mature connective tissue with moderate and strong expression of collagen type IV while pronounced expression, which was revealed only in the neurovascular bundles, was more common in the ST group. In our opinion, connective tissue in the cesarean scars in GM group was more mature compared with ST group and contained arterioles and large vessels. Thus, clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies did not reveal signifi  cant differences in both groups. Scar vascularization was similar to that in mature scars. In all cases, practically all the scar was composed of muscle fi  bers, between which the layer of connective tissue was located with neurovascular bundle represented by major arteries. However, scars after cesarean section by Gusakov’s technique seemed to be more mature and complete restoration of myometrium occurred.

Key words: cesarean section, Stark’s technique, Gusakov’s technique, complete uterine scar

V.N. Salkov, R.M. Khudoerkov, D.N. Voronkov, N.S. Noss
Quantitative analysis of age-related changes in substantia nigra cell structures in human brain


Morphometrical analysis of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was conducted on autopsy samples of human brains from the individuals of three age groups: middle-aged, elderly and old adults. The sizes of neuronal somata and nuclei as well as densities of glial and neuronal cells were studied with use of computer morphometry in ventral and dorsal areas of SNpc. Our results showed that mean neuronal size signifi  cantly increased with age whereas the size of nuclei was unchanged. We found the overall neural cell loss with aging, but density of dopamine neurons was signifi  cantly decreased only in ventral area of SNpc. Age-dependent increase in glial density was revealed in ventral SNpc in elderly and old individuals as compared with middle-aged ones, while in dorsal SNpc this parameter was signifi  cantly increased only in the old persons. It was concluded that the described changes of nigral neurons and neuroglia refl  ected age-related involution due to unspecifi  c neuronal degeneration that was more pronounced in ventral areas of SNpc.

Key words: aging, human brain, substantia nigra, involutive changes, neurons, glia


N.V. Bulyakova, V.S . Azarova
Experimental morphofunctional study of muscle allograt s from living and dead donors irradiated with He-Ne laser in vivo and ex vivo


In male rats at the age of  2-2.5 years biological properties of the entire gastrocnemius muscles were investigated 30 days after alloplasty. Each muscle implant was irradiated He-Ne laser single dose 4.5-5.4 J / cm2 in living rat-donors which were under anesthesia (experiment 1), in dead rats (2 hours after the cessation of breathing) in which gastrocnemius muscles were removed from the donor at the time of irradiation (experiment 2) and in dead rats in which gastrocnemius muscles were not removed from the donor at the time of irradiation (experiment 3). Study was carried out histological, morphometric and physiological methods. In experiment 1 allografts were subjected to active resorption and replacement by connective tissue. In experiment 2 the reaction of the recipient on allogenic muscle tissue was extremely weak and allografts almost completely were at ischemic conditions. In experiment 3, there was an increase adaptive capacity of allogenic muscle tissue. The areas of the narrow formed allogenic muscle fi  bers with moderate infi  ltration of lymphoid cells in the endomysium were observed. In some places, the weak contractions were noted during the direct stimulation of grafts.

Key words: old rats, muscle, alloplasty, live and dead rat-donor, He-Ne laser

M.A. Zatolokina, S.L. Kuznetsov
Morphological features of peripheral nerves in the branches of the brachial plexus during increased motor activity


The data obtained revealed that the level and the duration of the motor activity have the considerable effect on the structure of the peripheral nerves as in the case of the branches of the brachial plexus. It was observed that prolonged hyperkinesia significantly increased the area of the transversal section of neurovascular bunch, nervous trunks, their surrounding connective tissue and the thickness of the perineurium. The reactive changes in epineurium and paraneurium, neural connective tissue sheaths, were rather different, which confirms their different functional role for the peripheral nerve.

Key words: hyperkinesia, peripheral nerves, perineurium, paraneural connective tissue structures, epineurium, fibroblasts, fibrocytes

N.A. Zolotova, D.N. Khochansky, A.V. Polikarpova, M.T. Dobrinina, O.V. Makarova
Cytological and physiological characteristics of epithelial secretory cells from dif erent parts of the colon in experimental ulcerative colitis


In this article the cytophysiological changes of secretory cells from different parts of the colon in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis induced by 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in adult male C57Bl/6 mice had been described. Histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric study of the distal, medial and proximal parts of the colon was conducted. In acute ulcerative colitis number of goblet and enteroendocrine cells in the epithelial lining decreased, mucin production by the goblet cells was modified, proportion of acidic mucins reduced, size of goblet cells increased. Intensity of secretory cells changes was depended on the part of colon. In chronic ulcerative colitis a tendency to recovery of colon epithelium and secretory cells function was observed. In the proximal part of the colon inflammation was minimal, but here were the most pronounced secretory cells cytophysiological changes in comparing with the control group.

Key words: goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, colon, experimental ulcerative colitis

S.O. Mostovoy, V.F. Shul’gin, E.M. Maksimova, I.A. Nauhatsky
Changes in mandibles in laboratory white rats caused by aminophosphonate compounds


Non-opioid drug modeling impurities resulting from the clandestine production of amphetamine was used in the study. The impact of the drug on the crystal components of bone matrix and morphological structure of internal and external surfaces of mandible was investigated in laboratory white rats using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The preparation was found to cause pronounced remineralization, which explains the occurrence of osteonecrosis of the mandible in drug addicts.

Key words: rat, mandible, aminophosphonate, aminobisphosphonate, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis

D.N. Khochanskiy, O.V. Makarova
Morphological changes of enteric nervous system of the colon in experimental colitis


The morphological study of the enteric nervous system of C57Bl/6 male mice with DSS induced acute and chronic experimental colitis was conducted. We evaluated the cell composition of myenteric ganglia and morphometric values of βIII-tubulin and S100b-positive structures in the muscular layer and lamina propria mucosa. In acute colitis there was a decrease in number of hypochromic neurons and glial cells per ganglion, and an increase in number of hyperchromic neurons, in chronic colitis there was a decrease in number of hypochromic neurons. In acute colitis there was an increase in the relative area, occupied by βIII-tubulin-positive structures in muscular layer and lamina propria mucosa, and in the relative area, occupied by S100b-positive structures in lamina propria mucosa, as well as in the number of βIII-tubulin and S100b-positive structures in the muscular layer. The mean thickness of nerve fibers increased. In chronic colitis there was an increase in the relative area, occupied by βIII-tubulin-positive structures in muscular layer and in the relative area, occupied by S100b-positive structures in lamina propria mucosa, the mean thickness of nerve fibers also increased. Given morphological changes of myenteric and submucosal nerve plexus could reflect the alteration and reparation of the enteric nervous system

Key words: enteral nerve system, morphology, colitis, neurons, glia

N.V. Yaglova, Y.P. Sledneva, V.V. Yaglov
Thyroid morphology and function after long-term exposure to low doses of DDT during postnatal development


The aim was to evaluate changes in rat thyroid morphology and function after exposure to low doses of DDT during different periods of postnatal development. The data obtained shown, that inhibition of thyroid cell activity in rats exposed to low doses of DDT during 6 weeks from birth were more profound than in rats exposed to low doses of DDT from puberty. 10 weeks exposure to DDT from birth led to hyperfunction of the thyroid cells and destruction of the thyroid parenchyma unlike the same exposure from puberty which increased cell proliferation and formation of microfollicles.

Key words: thyroid, DDT, endocrine disruptors, development, morphology


O.V. Tarnopolskaya, E.I. Surikova, I.A. Goroshinskaya, N.M. Tichanovskaya
Evaluation of DNA damage by comet assay in blood leukocytes in patients with breast cancer


The level of DNA damage in leukocytes from fresh whole blood of patients with breast cancer before treatment was investigated by Comet Assay test. The level of DNA damage in blood of 12 women without cancer pathology was determined simultaneously. DNA damage of white blood cells was evaluated in three different ways, as well as apoptosis index was determined. In the first method we counted the number of five types of comets from 0 to 4 and the total number of comets and calculated an index of DNA comets by known formula. In the second method which mainly used by researchers, luminous intensity of ethidium bromide bound to the whole DNA comet and its head was determined, and the average share of the “tail” of DNA comet – tail DNA% was calculated for each sample. Third, the proposed method consisted in calculating of the tail % of DNA comet according to the formula that takes into account the ratio of the five types of visual comets and their total number in the sample. All three methods showed that the level of DNA damage in patients before treatment was slightly lower than that of women without cancer pathology (tail DNA% was 2.2±0.7% and 2.8±0.7%, respectively). Spearman’s correlation coefficient calculated for the results obtained by known methods of evaluating of DNA damage and visual method, offered by us, was 0.95, which indicates its usefulness for assessing the level of DNA damage of white blood cells.

Key words: breast cancer, method of DNA comets, leukocytes of whole blood, DNA damage.


V.E. Тorbek, S.S. Obernikhin, N.V. Yaglova
Thymic reticular epithelial cells and their role in the development of regulatory T cells


The article reviews data on thymic reticular epithelial cells and their role in the formation of specific microenvironment in the cortex and medulla of thymic lobules. The role of medullar epithelial cells in the development of regulatory T-lymphocytes and induction of tolerance is discussed.

Key words: thymic epithelial cells, thymus, regulatory T cells, development

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