The Journal of Clinical and Experimental Morphology № 4(20) / 2016

Research Institute of Human Morphology

EDITORIALS, LECTURES

T.V. Boronikhina
Modern concepts of folliculogenesis in the thyroid gland
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Details

The article deals with the morphogenesis of the thyroid gland, reviews the results obtained over a period
of last decades concerning thyroid folliculogenesis and discusses current understanding of the problem.
Key words: thyroid gland, folliculogenesis, thyrocytes

Clinical morphology

Y.S. Krivova, A.E. Proshchina, V.M. Barabanov, S.V. Saveliev
Formation of neuroinsular complexes during prenatal development of human pancreas
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In the human pancreas, endocrine cells can be integrated into neuroinsular complexes with the structures of the nervous system. Mechanisms underlying formation of such complexes are not clearly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactions between the structures of the nervous system and epithelial cells during prenatal development of human pancreas and to identify possible mechanisms underlying formation of neuro-insular complexes. The study was performed on 46 pancreatic autopsies of human fetuses aged from 8 to 40 weeks of gestation using immunohistochemical labeling with antibodies against peripherin and NCAM. The contacts between the structures of the nervous system and epithelial cells of primitive ducts were detected in the fetal pancreas at early stages of development (8–11 weeks). In the pancreas of fetuses aged from 13 to 40 weeks, we simultaneously revealed neuroinsular complexes and contacts between the structures of nervous and epithelial cells located in ducts as well as cell clusters that were often connected with the ducts. Based on these findings, we suggested that the development of neuroinsular complexes may be due to integration between the structures of the nervous system and epithelial progenitors at the initial stages of islets formation.
Key words: pancreas, human development, neuroinsular complexes, pancreatic islets, peripherin, NCAM

A.I. Kurtova, S.V. Saveliev
BDNF expression in the fungiform papillae on the tongue of human embryos
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The aim of investigation was to identify zones of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the epithelium of the fungiform papillae in human embryos and fetuses. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical study of the tongue tissue of 32 human embryos and fetuses from 4th to 21st week of prenatal development was carried out by using antibodies to BDNF and neuronspecific β3 -tubulin and counting fungiform papillae on the tongue surface at different stages of development. Results. BDNF was revealed in the basal layer of the tongue epithelium starting from the 10th week of development. Its expression was shifted to the top of the fungiform papillae since 13-14th weeks, and it remained only in the cells of the taste buds and perigemmal cells by 18-19th weeks. The results of the counting show that the fungiform papillae stop to increase by 15-16th weeks of prenatal development and their number is stable at 180 papillae. Conclusions. Termination of BDNF expression in the basal layer of the human tongue epithelium coincides with the completion of the formation of new fungiform papillae, after which a neurotrophic factor is located only in the taste buds and surrounding perigemmal cells. The obtained data allow assuming that there is a sensitive morphogenetic period till the 15th week of prenatal development, when any cell in the basal layer of the tongue epithelium can transform to the taste buds progenitor cell.
Key words: taste buds, BDNF, fungiform papillae, human embryos and fetuses.

D.E. Matsko, M.V. Matsko, A.Yu. Ulitin, A.G. Ievleva, E.N. Imyanitov
Conserning so-called long-term survival glioblastomas
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We studied the IHC and molecular genetic features of tumors which were primarily morphologically diagnosed as glioblastoma in 5 patients with a life expectancy of more than 3 years. In four cases, neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, ganglioglioma and anaplastic ganglioglioma were diagnosed. In one case, small cell glioblastoma was identified. There is a need to rediagnose the histology and IHC of the tumors when patients with supposed glioblastoma survive more than 3 years. The relationship between VEGF gene expression and value of the Ki-67 proliferation index was revealed.
Key words: CNS tumors, long-term survival glioblastomas, MGMT gene, VEGF gene

V.V. Nechay, M.V. Samsonova, V.M. Pominal’naya, A.L. Chernyaev
Cryptococcosis in patients with myocardial reinfarction after coronary artery stenting (clinical and post-mortem observation)
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We present a case of generalized cryptococcosis in a patient who died from myocardial reinfarction after coronary artery stenting identified at autopsy study. Granulomas in the lungs, spleen, liver and bone marrow were the main morphological manifestation of cryptococcosis in this case. Cryptococci were found in granulomas after staining with periodic acid Schiff and alcian blue. This clinical and post-mortem observation has some outstanding features as follows: cryptococcosis has not been diagnosed in the lifetime of the patient; the deceased did not belong to the risk group; overt clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis were absent despite the local spread of the process; the immediate cause of death was myocardial reinfarction.
Key words: cryptococcosis, myocardial infarction, coronary artery stenting

Experimental morphology

A.G. Babayeva, N.M. Gevorkyan, N.V. Tishevskaya
Erythropoietic in vitro activity of total RNA from placental cells
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Total RNA from placental cells added to the culture medium induced stimulation of erythropoiesis in a culture of erythroblastic islets (EI) of rat bone marrow. It was manifested in increased number of proliferating classes of EI, accelerated entry of colony-forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) in differentiation, accelerated maturation of erythroblasts and stimulation of re-involvement of bone marrow macrophages in erythropoiesis. We believe that the stimulation of erythropoiesis with placental total RNA is due to the enrichment of this tissue with hematopoietic stem cells, and therefore, their effects could be substituted by those of total RNA extracted from these cells.
Key words: placenta, stem cells, RNA, erythropoiesis

V.D. Zaharov, A.J. Andreev, O.V. Zayratyants, E.O. Osidak, S.A. Borzenok, S.V. Krasheninnikov, A.S. Karyagina, S.P. Domogatskiy
Morphological changes in rabbit conea produced by rhBMP-2 growth factor as part of intracorneal collagen implant
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Methods of corneal strengthening were developed with the use of autological tissues with the purpose to prevent and treat the complications of keratoprosthesis. Their application was however hampered by selection and modeling of the transplants of desired shape, insufficient adaptation possibilities of the material and postoperative graft lysis. We suggest the new way of the strengthening keratoprosthesis consisting in the implantation of the collagen membrane containing bone morphogenetic protein rhBMP-2 into corneal stoma. The aim of the study was to assess of the effects on corneal morphology of collagen membrane loaded with bone morphogenetic protein rhBMP-2 implant as carrier. Materials and methods. The work was performed on 21 chinchilla rabbits. To prepare the implant (collagen membrane), sterile solution of 2% rat purified native type I collagen with addition of sterile rhBMP-2 solution was used. The resulting collagen membrane was implanted into intrastromal “from limbus to limbus” corneal pocket. Experimental period was 84 days. Samples of cornea were investigated histologically on postoperative days 28, 56 and 84. Results. On the first postoperative weeks, cornea showed moderate inflammatory reaction and active neoangiogenesis. Later, replacement of the implant with connective tissue, new formation of blood vessels and thickening of the cornea were observed. Conclusions. Improvement of corneal biomechanical properties under the influence of rhBMP-2 was demonstrated, which is promising in the aspect of strengthening the cataracts at various stages of keratoprosthesis.
Key words: cornea, keratoprosthesis, rhBMP-2, collagen, biomechanics

E.Z. Kocharyan, D.N. Fedorov, Sh.M. Akhmedov, I.L. Zhidkov, N.V. Sitnitchenko, I.T. Mukhamedov, V.S. Korvyakov, V.D. Melanyin, M.V. Lekishvili, A.S. Zelyanin, T.V. Burmistrova
Comparitive study of regeneration in parietal bone defects in rabbits after plastic reconstruction with perfoost, collapan-D, allo- and auto cartilage
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Allogeneic transplants Perfoost and allocartilage as well as artificial material Сollapan-D causе the pronounced immune response of the recipient inducing their destruction, resorption and replacement by bone tissue. At the same time, auto cartilage remains practically intact, that allows using it when required in the operative exploration of the bony walls of the cavities, for example, of a middle ear. Replacement of Collapan-D was slower than of Perfoostom.
Key words: allograft, autograft, regeneration, osteocytes, osteoblasts

E.A. Tikhonov, O.V. Makarova, V.A. Golichenkov, L.P. Mikhailova
Age-related changes in enterochromaffin cells and serotonin level in different colonic regions of the colon in Wistar rats
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We examined the number of endocrine cell (EC) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in proximal and distal colon and peripheral blood plasma in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into age groups as follows: newborns (2-4 days), prepubertal rats (25-30 days), mature rats (3 months) and old rats (16-18 months). Antibodies against Chromogranin A were used to label EC. 5‑HT levels were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. We showed that the number of EC and serotonin content in colon and blood increased with age. EC number and 5‑HT levels were higher in the proximal colon than in the distal colon in all the groups except the newborns. We found strong positive correlation between EC numbers and 5‑HT levels in the plasma and colon tissue homogenate.
Key words: age-related changes, colon, enterochromaffin cells, serotonin, rat

METHODS

A.V. Volkov, S.A. Shustrov, K.S. Korsanenkov, E.Kh. Nabiyeva
Novel staining method for nondecalcified bone tissue
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We have developed a novel staining method for the thinned sections of native (nondecalcified) bone tissue embedded into polymethyl methacrylate. Four basic dyes used for staining differentially stain bone structural components due to metachromasia. Polymethyl methacrylate thinned sections of bone tissue containing osteoplastic material based on polyglycolide are presented as illustrations.
Key words: bone tissue, regeneration, histological stain

REVIEWS

T.B. Bukharova, D.V. Goldshtein
Morphological aspects of the transplantation of immunoisolated insulin-producing cells in the therapy of insulin-dependent diabetes
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Methods of immunoisolation of the insulin-producing cells and histology of the inflammatory response of the recipient to the transplantation are reviewed with special reference to the type of the immunoisolating device and to implantation site and technique. The importance of morphological research for developing new immunoisolating materials and devices is underscored.
Key words: pancreas, insulin-producing cells, transplantation, diabetes, immunoisolation, immunoprotection, inflammation

A.V. Vasilyev, G.B. Bolshakova, D.V. Goldshtein
Prospect to increase the efficiency and tumorigenic safety of bone plastic materials with peripherally acting opioids
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Opioid receptor agonists stimulate proliferation of osteoblast progenitors. Short-term phased use of proliferation stimulants first, and then osteoinductors, is observed the largest increase of bone regeneration volume. At that point the most promise have the officinal drug Dalarginum – peripherally acting delta- and mu- opioid receptor agonist. Data about the antitumor effect of opioids are controversial, so it is required further studies to evaluate the ability of opioids to inhibit proliferation, metastasis and invasion of different cell lines.
Key words: opioids, bone regeneration, the antitumor effect of opioid, osteoinduction

CHRONICLE

28-й европейский конгресс патологов
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К 90-летию со дня рождения Антон Самуилович Зиновьев (1926–2003)
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