CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MORPHOLOGY № 1(21) / 2017

SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL REVIEWED JOURNAL
the Research Institute of Human Morphology

CLINICAL MORPHOLOGY

A.V. Asaturova, L.V. Adamyan, L.S. Ezhova, N.M. Fayzullina, M.V. Sannikova, G.N. Khabas, N.I. Kondrikov
Application of р16, laminin-gamma1 and stathmin1 as addition markers for serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma diagnosis
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Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is known to be a putative precursor for the most common and aggressive ovarian carcinomas, namely ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Precise and early diagnose this disease is therefore one of the priorities for tissue diagnosis in gynecologic oncology. We estimated the application of р16, stathmin1 and laminin-gamma1 as additional markers in the diagnosis of STIC. The study included 70 patients (125 fallopian tubes), all of the specimens were investigated morphologically and immunohistochemically (р53, Ki-67, р16, stathmin1 and laminin-gamma1). Statistics involved exact Fisher’s test and χ2 -test. Expression of p16, stathmin1 and laminin-gamma1 was revealed in 85%, 77,5% and 90% of STIC consequently. In 4 tubes with STIC, only one of these tree markers was positive but we has no cases with all three negative expression. In STIC cases, expression of р16, stathmin1 and laminin-gamma1 was high both in the presence and in the absence of p53 expression in atypical cells. In most cases, positive expression of at least two of the three studied markers was shown. That allows us to recommend their use in cases of absent or questionable p53 expression or boundary indicators of Ki-67 expression.

Key words: serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, p16, stathmin1, laminin-gamma1, ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma

V.L. Zagrebin, I.A. Krayushkin, B.V. Barkanov, A.V. Zubkov
New aspects in surgical anatomy of the parathiyroid gland
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In exploring neck organocomplexes (n=68), we have studied in detail the number, topographic features, and surrounding structures of parathyroid glands (PTG). We have revealed considerable variations in the number and in the location of PTG. In 76% cases, histological survey confirmed the presence of parathyroid tissue in the samples. Structures mistaken for parathyroid tissue amounted to 24 %. Among them, there were lymphatic nodes, adipose tissue and aberrant lobes of thyroid glands. Atypical location of the lower parathyroid glands was found in 30% of cases. Based on this study, we recommend to search PTG within a radius of 2 cm from the junction of the inferior thyroid artery with the recurrent laryngeal nerve as well as to search along the inferior thyroid artery and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, in the paraesophageal space and retropharyngeal space.

Key words: parathyroid glands, surgical anatomy, parathyroidectomy

E.K. Egorova, A.M. Kovrigina, A.L. Melikyan
Morphological and immunohistochemical features of different types of Castleman’s disease. Part 1. Diagnostic criteria of mixed type
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The aim of this research work was to confirm the detection of the mixed type of Castleman’s disease by means of comparative study of HGAL expression in different morphological types of Castleman’s disease. Morphological examination of 3-4 micron paraffin sections after routine hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed in 76 patients. Immunohistochemical study with antibody to HGAL was carried out in 43 (56,58%) cases. Mixed cell variant was detected in 21 (27,6%) cases after morphological comparison that was confirmed with the study of HGAL expression. We determined immunomorphological criteria of three morphological types of Castleman’s disease.

Key words: Castleman’s disease, hyaline-vascular type, plasma cell type, mixed type

A.Yu. Krylov
Evaluation of the quality of immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer
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We compared the results of the work of reference laboratory of Ural Federal District of Russian Federation on the quality standards of the immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer and the reports of oncomorphology offices in Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno and Mogilev regions on the results of immunohistochemical detection of breast cancer. The high coverage of these studies of women with breast cancer in the studied regions was shown. However, the percentage of HER2 expression degrees except ++ (approximately 10%) had some differences in the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation as well as in different laboratories. This indicates the need for further work to enhance the standardization and improve the quality of immunohistochemical studies. In our opinion, the results of immunohistochemical diagnosis should be used in the elements of external quality assurance in laboratory and internal quality control because these data are required to define trends in the use of anti-tumor drug postoperative therapy in breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer constituting, according to our and literature data, about 20% of all cases of breast cancer, needs special analysis and can be used also as a quality indicator of immunohistochemical studies. Poorly fixed specimens would obviously show immunohistochemically triple-negative breast cancer and its percentage would be higher. In doubtful cases of breast cancer, staining for vimentin should be performed along with other immunohistochemical studies. To monitor the completion of the fixation, formalin with added food coloring can be used (patent № a20160264 from 07.07.2016).

Key words: breast cancer, immunohistochemical studies, quality control, triple-negative breast cancer

N.V. Mozgaleva, Yu.G. Parkhomenko, A.V. Chukbar
Histopathology of the human atrioventricular node in infectious diseas
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We studied morphological changes in the atrioventricular node of the cardiac conducting system in 119 persons. The patients had died from various infectious diseases such as diphtheria, infectious endocarditis in HIV-infected drug users, generalized tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection, meningococcal infection, staphylococcal pneumonia and erysipelas. Atrioventricular node injury was shown to be less pronounced than that of the working myocardium and depended on the duration of the disease. Infectious endocarditis was associated with greater inflammatory changes.

Key words: cardiac conducting system, atrioventricular node, infectious diseases, infectious endocarditis, diphtheria, generalized tuberculosis, HIV-infection

Experimental morphology

D.V. Zhukov, A.M. Zajdman, A.P. Nadeev, V.M. Prokhorenko, V.A. Zhukova
Pathological alterations of bone and lung tissue after implantation of bone cement
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The aim of the work was to study morphological changes in the bone and lung tissue after the introduction of the bone cement into the femur. Material and methods. The study was performed on 110 male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into 3 groups. In group 1 (controls), only cortical perforation of the diaphysis was carried out. In the 2nd experimental group, bone cement was injected intraosseously into the defect of cortical diaphysis produced similarly to group 1 at a dose of 0.1 ml. Animals in group 3 remained intact. The rats were removed from the experiment after 12 hours and 1, 3, 7, and 30 days. Results. We found that massive necrosis of bone tissue, fibrinoid necrosis of vascular thrombosis and the development of secondary bone necrosis were most pronounced on days 1 to 7 after the introduction of bone cement, which drastically slowed down the process of regeneration of thigh bone tissue, prolonged the inflammatory response and underlied the general toxic effect of methyl methacrylate, namely thrombotic complications. Toxic damage to the lungs after the administration of the bone cement that was most expressed on experimental days 1 to 3 was primarily due to the necrosis of endothelial cells followed by vascular thrombosis and later, by increased severity of interstitial inflammation.

Key words: methyl methacrylate, bone cement implantation syndrome, bone tissue, lungs

S.O. Mostovoy, V.F. Shul’gin, M.V. Peshkov
Pathomorphological study of the side effects of aminobisphosphonates on the mandibular bone of white laboratory rats
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Dynamic of morphostructural changes in mandibular bones of white laboratory rats during 3 month long administration of pamidronic acid at a dose of 63 mg/kg has been studied. Light microscopy survey was conducted including quantitative estimation of the structure of mandibular bone and histomorphometry with the use of terminology of the Nomenclature Committee of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). Three new functional parameters were investigated to estimate physilological processes in mandibular bones. It was found that pamidronic acid administered to white laboratory rats for 3 months produced myelofibrosis and local osteosclerotic as well as osteodystrophic alterations that resembled the changes during osteitis ossificans.

Key words: aminobisphosphonate, osteonecrosis, osteocytic osteolysis, mandibular bone

N.B. Sereznikova, L.S. Pogodina, T.V. Lipina, N.N. Trofimova, T.S. Gurieva, O.A. Dadasheva, P.P. Zak
Age-related changes in retinal pigment epithelium of japanese quail Coturnix Japonica under blue light during the daytime
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Effects of blue light illumination (λ450 nm, 2 mW/cm2, every day for 15 hours) on age-related changes of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were studied in Japanese quail C. japonica, rapidly aging organism, using methods of light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and morphometry. Adaptive response of RPE cells was found that included significant increase in mitochondria number and changes in their form and structure. The response was more expressed in young birds. Along with this, the thickness of RPE layer increased greatly also in young birds under blue illumination but the number of phagosomes, phagolisosomes and lipofuscin granules was reduced in old birds. In the same time, the number of apoptotic nuclei didn’ t change. It is assumed that adaptive response of RPE mitochondria to blue illumination is focused on the neutralization of known phototoxic effects of blue light.

Key words: aging, daily illumination, blue light, retinal pigment epithelium, mitochondria

Methods

М.V. Peshkov, А.E. Matsionis
Removal of the formalin pigment in the preparation of immunohistochemical specimens
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The article describes methods of removal of the formalin pigment that can be used during the preparation of histological and immunohistochemical specimens. The problems of primary fixation including the loss of important antigens cannot thereby be solved. However, a clear microscopic picture can be obtained where only the sites of localization of the antigen – antibody complexes are stained brown.

Key words: formalin pigment, fixation, immunohistochemistry

K.A. Sychevskaya, M.V. Erokhina, L.N. Lepekha
Computer morphometry in differential diagnosis of necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis and tuberculosis
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The results of application of computer-based morphometric methods in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis are presented in the article. The similar morphology – formation of foci of productive inflammation with central necrosis – is typical for both of diseases. The structure of inner zone of inflammation focus may be used as basic marker for differential diagnosis. Objective evaluation algorithm of this parameter has been developed on the basis of morphometric software and tested on histologic material of the patients with tuberculosis and necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis. Perspective introduction of this diagnostic method into clinical practice is discussed.

Key words: necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, computer morphometry

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