the Research Institute of Human Morphology

Clinical morphology

L.F. Kurilo
Methods of quantitative evaluation of the meiotic pathology of male and female germ cells


The aim of the study was to develop quantitative methods to evaluate disturbances of meiosis at the stages of 
prophase I, namely preleptotene, leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, dictyotene, diakinesis; metaphase 
I and II, anaphase I and II, telophase I and II) as well as unidentifiable degenerating female and male mammal 
gametes. Methods for the quantitative evaluation of the stages of meiosis have been developed. The results 
of studies of female and male meiosis stages violation under chemical (thiophosphamid, 17-β-estradiol, 
alcohol, nicotine), physical and biological factors are presented. These factors lead to the decrease in the 
number of gametes, block of meiotic stages, increasing frequency of gamete degeneration, and infertility.
Key words: mitosis, meiosis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, ovaries, testes, oocytes, spermato-

Yu.M. Zabrodskaya, D.A. Sitovskaya, S.M. Malyshev, T.V. Sokolova, D.V. Ryzhkova, V.G. Nezdorovina, G.V. Odintsova
A rare case of drug-resistant epilepsy associated with cortical microdysgenesis


The term “disorders of cortical development” designates a group of various changes in the cerebral cortex 
expressed in the malformation of the cortical organization. Heterotopic neurons in layer I of the neocortex 
were first described by H. J. Meencke and D. Janz (1984) under the name of microdysgenesis. It was noted 
that cortical microdysgenesis was extremely rare and is not specific to any particular form of epilepsy. We 
present a rare case of pharmacoresistant epilepsy caused by cortical microdysgenesis.
Key words: epilepsy, drug-resistant epilepsies, malformation of cortical development, cortical microdys-
genesis, microdysgenesis

Experimental morphology

I.S. Tsvetkov, M.T. Dobrynina, V.A. Mkhitarov, L.P. Mikhailova, O.V. Makarova
Morphological changes in the organs of the immune system in male С57BL/6 mice after high dose testosterone treatment


During the course of high dose testosterone injections, experimental mice showed accidental thymic involu-
tion, hyperplasia of B-zone cells in the lymph nodes, and increased number of macrophages in the medullar 
sinuses. Hyperplasia of the white pulp of the spleen and expansion of the germinal centers of lymphoid 
nodules were also detected.
Key words: testosterone, thymic involution, spleen, lymphatic nodes, mice

D.A. Tsomartova, N.V. Yaglova, S.S. Obernikhin, S.V. Nazimova, Y.P. Sledneva, V.V. Yaglov
Changes in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells of rats exposed to low doses of DDT during postnatal development


The research is focused on cytophysiology of adrenal glomerulosa cells of rats exposed to low doses of 
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) since the first day of postnatal development. At pubertal age, aldo-
sterone serum levels in experimental rats were increased. The changes in fine structure found in glomerulosa 
cells indicated higher functional activity. Decreased size of glomerulosa cells and reduced mitochondria 
content per μm2
 of cytoplasm indicated lowered secretory activity after puberty proved by decreased level 
of serum aldosterone. Lowered hormone production induced hyperplasia of zona glomerulosa. The data 
obtained showed that DDT disrupts cytophysiology of glomerulosa cells, primarily caused by reduction in 
the number of mitochondria. 
Key words: zona glomerulosa, adrenal gland, ultrastructure, aldosterone, endocrine disruptor, DDT

A.G. Babaeva, N.V. Tishevskaya, N.M. Gevorkyan
Morphofunctional features of in vitro erythropoiesis under the influence of total rna from bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell


Total RNA isolated from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) at a dose of 2 and 4 ug/ml was 
added to the culture medium of erythroblastic islands (EI) of rat bone marrow, which resulted in stimula-
tion of erythropoiesis. The processes of erythropoiesis de novo and de repeto in 24-hour EI cultures were 
activated after adding of total RNAMMSK at 4 ug/ml. The morphologically revealed feature of the change 
in EI structure under the action of RNAMMSK was detected in vitro. Unlike lymphocytic total RNA, 
RNAMMSK directly induced erythropoiesis not accompanied by the increase in the number of contacts of EI with lymphocytes. The results obtained suggest the conceptual possibility of an adequate replacement of 
MMSC transplantation with the introduction of total RNAMMSK.
Key words: MMSC, erythropoiesis, erythroblastic islets, RNA

N.A. Zolotova, Yu.E. Kozlovsky, E.A. Tikhonov, O.V. Makarova, G.V. Kozlovskaya, N.F. Chertovich
Morphological characteristics of the colonic mucosa in the Sprague-Dawley rats under effect of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum


Oral probiotics are widely used in clinical practice. However, there are still no evident methods for evaluating 
their impact on the structural changes in the colon. The aim of the work was to evaluate the cytophysiologi-
cal changes in goblet cells and the structure of colonic lymphoid nodules under the influence of probiotic 
Lactobacillus plantarum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received daily intragastrical injections of 108 CFU 
of Lactobacillus plantarum. Changes in the number and size of lymphoid nodules, the number of goblet 
cells and the production of sulfated and neutral mucins in the colon were evaluated after the sacrifice of the 
animals. A statistically significant increase in the area of    aggregated lymphoid nodules and the number of 
individual lymphoid nodules within them was revealed. The number of goblet cells and the content of highly sulfated and neutral mucins did not change significantly. Thus, intragastric administration of the probiotic 
strain Lactobacillus plantarum for 21 days had no effect on the cytophysiological state of goblet cells but 
lead to stimulation of the local compartment of the immune system.
Key words: probiotic, colon, immune system, epithelial barrier 


T.V. Lipina, A.V. Komova, S.Y. Sosnovskaya, N.V. Kosheleva
Endogenous and exogenous sources of cardiac repair in mammals


The present article attempts to systematize the data on cardiac regeneration under normal and pathological 
conditions obtained in the past decade. The key features of cardiac stem cells have been reviewed and the 
prospects of myocardium regeneration have been analyzed. 
Key words: stem cells, regeneration, myocardium, cardiomyocytes, cell therapy

K.A. Rogov, N.B. Tikhonova, M.N. Boltovskaya, A.P. Milovanov
Morphological aspects of the disturbances of the myometrial repair after cеsarean section


Current clinical and experimental data on the causes of impaired scar formation in myometrium after cae-
sarean section are reviewed. The individual causes of abnormalities in tissue repair are shown. Among 
them, the role of mediators, cytokines and polymorphism of some gene receptors is revealed determining 
the stimulation or inhibition of proliferation of parenchymal and mesenchymal cells and the synthesis of 
the extracellular matrix. In addition to the causes associated with postoperative myocardial ischemia and 
inflammation, phenotype and immune status of pregnant women is of importance in abnormal reparation. 
These factors can have a significant effect on maturation, formation and remodulation of myometrial scars.
Key words: cesarean section, scar myometry, violation of reparation, histology, imunohistochemistry, mo-
lecular biology

A.A. Verevkin, A.A. Slavinskiy, E.D. Kosmacheva
Morphofunctional characteristic of the transplanted heart rejection


The article deals with the main morphological features of cellular and antibody-mediated rejection of the 
transplanted heart as well as histological changes in endomyocardial biopsy requiring differential diagnosis 
with rejection (i.e. ischemic myocardial damage, post-biopsy scars, Quilty effect, infectious lesions and 
post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases). Current view on the non-invasive rejection diagnostics in 
presented. Despite a large number of studies, the problem of pathohistological diagnosis of rejection is still 
actual. The criteria for antibody-mediated and mixed rejection as well as the effectiveness of non-invasive 
methods, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and molecular genetic diagnostics, should be 
clarified, and the evidence base should be expanded.
Key words: transplanted heart rejection; endomyocardial biopsy; cellular rejection; antibody-mediated rejec-
tion; non-invasive heart rejection diagnostics


O.V. Podobed, V.L. Kovalenko
Methodological and technological aspects of a reliable clinical and pathological analysis of letal outcomes


An attempt has been made to unify clinical and pathological analysis with the purpose of increasing its 
reliability by applying uniform methodological and technological approaches. A retrospective study of 500 
lethal cases revealed discrepancies in the final clinical and pathological diagnoses for the underlying disease 
in 23.8% of cases. At the same time, analysis from the perspective of preventable mortality showed that 
81.6% of deaths were preventable. Along with the identification of conventional medical care defects, the 
effective clinical and pathological analysis should include a collegial assessment of the predictability of the 
lethal outcome with the definition of groups of preventable causes of death (A, B and C) and the calculation 
of the death prevention index as an integral measure of the quality of care.
Key words: clinical and pathological analysis, lethal outcome, methodology, death prevention index

I.V. Dmitriev, A.E. Dorosevich
Unified clinical and pathologic (forensic) diagnosing and comparison of diagnoses


The analysis of problems in clinical and pathological diagnosing and of comparison the diagnoses was 
performed. There is a growing trend of more and more complex and ambiguous registration of clinical and 
pathologic (forensic) diagnoses. In this article, we suggest diagnosing based on the terms of the International 
Classification of Diseases of the 10th revision (ICD-10). Unification of the determining of diagnoses will 
greatly simplify the introduction of clinical recommendations, the accreditation of specialists will allow the 
computer processing of medical documentation, and diagnoses matching process becomes clear to physi-
cians of different specialties.
Key words: diagnosis, diagnosing, comparison, ICD-10


Памяти Юрия Ивановича Денисова-Никольского


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